Astrophys. Space Sci. Trans., 7, 229-234, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
27 Jun 2011
The cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 1016–1018 eV measured by KASCADE-Grande
M. Bertaina3, W.D. Apel1, J.C. Arteaga-Velázquez2,a, K. Bekk1, J. Blümer1,2, H. Bozdog1, I.M. Brancus4, P. Buchholz5, E. Cantoni1,3,6, A. Chiavassa3, F. Cossavella2,b, K. Daumiller1, V. de Souza2,c, F. Di Pierro3, P. Doll1, R. Engel1, J. Engler1, M. Finger1, D. Fuhrmann7, P.L. Ghia6, H.J. Gils1, R. Glasstetter7, C. Grupen5, A. Haungs1, D. Heck1, J.R. Hörandel2,d, T. Huege1, P.G. Isar1, K.-H. Kampert7, D. Kang2, D. Kickelbick5, H.O. Klages1, K. Link2, P. Łuczak8, M. Ludwig2, H.J. Mathes1, H.J. Mayer1, M. Melissas2, J. Milke1, B. Mitrica4, C. Morello6, G. Navarra3,e, S. Nehls1, J. Oehlschläger1, S. Ostapchenko1,f, S. Over5, N. Palmieri2, M. Petcu4, T. Pierog1, H. Rebel1, M. Roth1, H. Schieler1, F. Schröder1, O. Sima9, G. Toma4, G.C. Trinchero6, H. Ulrich1, A. Weindl1, J. Wochele1, M. Wommer1, and J. Zabierowski8
1Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie - Campus Nord, Germany
2Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie - Campus Süd, Germany
3Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Università, Torino, Italy
4National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania
5Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Germany
6Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino, Italy
7Fachbereich Physik, Universität Wuppertal, Germany
8Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz, Poland
9Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
anow at: Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Mexico
bnow at: Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, Germany
cnow at: Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Brasil
dnow at: Dept. of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
fnow at: University of Trondheim, Norway

Abstract. The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Campus North of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 1014–1018 eV. One of the main goals of the experiment is the measurement of the all particle energy spectrum in the 1016–1018 eV range, i.e. extending the range accessible by KASCADE alone. The Grande detector samples the charged component (Nch) of the air shower while the original KASCADE array provides in addition a measurement of the muon component (Nμ). The combined information of Nch and Nμ is used to estimate the energy on an event-by-event basis and to derive the all-particle energy spectrum. Since the calibration of the observables in terms of the primary energy depends on Monte Carlo simulations, three different methods with partially different sources of uncertainties, have been considered and compared to each other to derive the systematics on the energy spectrum. The different methods employed to derive the spectrum and their uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, are discussed in detail.

Citation: Bertaina, M., Apel, W.D., Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C., Bekk, K., Blümer, J., Bozdog, H., Brancus, I.M., Buchholz, P., Cantoni, E., Chiavassa, A., Cossavella, F., Daumiller, K., de Souza, V., Di Pierro, F., Doll, P., Engel, R., Engler, J., Finger, M., Fuhrmann, D., Ghia, P.L., Gils, H.J., Glasstetter, R., Grupen, C., Haungs, A., Heck, D., Hörandel, J.R., Huege, T., Isar, P.G., Kampert, K.-H., Kang, D., Kickelbick, D., Klages, H.O., Link, K., Łuczak, P., Ludwig, M., Mathes, H.J., Mayer, H.J., Melissas, M., Milke, J., Mitrica, B., Morello, C., Navarra, G., Nehls, S., Oehlschläger, J., Ostapchenko, S., Over, S., Palmieri, N., Petcu, M., Pierog, T., Rebel, H., Roth, M., Schieler, H., Schröder, F., Sima, O., Toma, G., Trinchero, G.C., Ulrich, H., Weindl, A., Wochele, J., Wommer, M., and Zabierowski, J.: The cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 1016–1018 eV measured by KASCADE-Grande, Astrophys. Space Sci. Trans., 7, 229-234, doi:10.5194/astra-7-229-2011, 2011.
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